Intrinsic and Extrinsic Tooth Discoloration

Did you know that there are different types of tooth stains? Extrinsic and intrinsic stain involve different areas of teeth. In most cases, Dr. Ann Kania and her professional staff can help you understand the cause of your tooth discoloration.

What Are the Differences Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Stains?

Extrinsic stains affect your tooth enamel. In this case, some staining may occur from foods and beverages that discolor your teeth such as coffee, wine, and soda. Smoking tobacco also contributes to discoloration of your teeth as well.

Intrinsic stains refer to the inner parts of your tooth. Intrinsic stains involve the dentin of your tooth. Dentin can darken or discolor with a yellow tint for various reasons. These stains can be caused by an overexposure to fluoride during childhood, root canal treatment, trauma to the tooth, childhood medication, or your mother may have used certain types of antibiotics while pregnant when your teeth were forming.

Age related discoloration may be a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.  Tooth dentin will yellow over time.  This can make the tooth appear darker.  The enamel that covers the crown of your tooth will thin in time (like many other tissues in your body). Thin enamel and darkening dentin result in darker teeth.  In addition, teeth can be damaged or chipped.  Such trauma can irritate the pulp – causing darkening.   (more…)

Bad Mood = Bad Gum Health

During an emotional time in your life, you probably change your behavioral patterns to adjust to your feelings. Don’t be tempted during those times to neglect your dental health.  Visit Dr. Kania during negative life events, such as trauma, stress, and illness, to defend against your risk of gum disease.

Negative Life Events

Studies show that the severity of gum disease increases with the amount of negativity in your life. Negative life events include:

  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Loneliness
  • Depression
  • Trauma
  • Death of loved one
  • Illness
  • Physical or Mental Abuse


Vitamin C Keeps Gums Strong

The foods you eat are important because they affect your oral health.  There are a number of nutrients that are required for good oral health.   Vitamin C is an important nutrient that can help keep your gums strong, reducing your risk of gum disease. Dr. Ann Kania can assess the health and strength of your gums.


Vitamin C is an essential component of collagen development, which helps build the framework of tissues, including your gums. Collagen is constantly being formed by your body.  The nutrient also helps strengthen your gum tissue and blood vessels to anchor your teeth into your gums and make your gum lining resistant to bacteria. When your gum tissues become weak, bacteria can easily enter your gums and cause inflammation and infection. It’s important to have vitamin C in your system so your tissues remain strong.


Protecting Your Smile at Night

Do you wake up in the morning with painful headaches? If so, you may suffer from teeth grinding, also known as bruxism. Sometimes grinding and clenching is unconscious and you don’t feel anything at all. Dr. Ann Kania can determine symptoms of bruxism simply by inspecting your mouth.

What is Bruxism?

Bruxism is an unconscious and chronic act of grinding or clenching your teeth. It is often a result of stress, anxiety, or nervousness. Bruxism puts extra pressure on your teeth. Over time, the enamel will wear down and weaken, causing your teeth to hurt, chip, crack, or shift out of place. Bruxism also affects your facial muscles. When you grind or clench, your facial muscles tighten and tense. This could cause headaches, jaw pain, earaches, jaw popping, or clicking.


What Do I Need to Know About Dental Implants?

Dental implantFor patients who are missing teeth, it can be difficult to know which dental restoration is right for them. We’ve put together a short list of what you need to know if you’re considering dental implants.

Who Gets Implants?

Implants replace missing teeth. Many patients prefer dental implants to dentures and bridges, because implants function most like real teeth. Dental implant preserve function and bone at the site. Additionally, there is no age limit—you are never “too old” to get implants.

Who Can’t Get Implants?

Some health conditions and lifestyle choices may cause implants to be less successful. Patients with these issues should consult with Dr. Kania to see if they are good candidates for implants. These conditions include, but are not limited to:

  • People who smoke or use chewing tobacco
  • Patients who have received extensive radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck
  • People whose diabetes is not well managed or who have diabetes-related health complications
  • Older patients with advanced osteoporosis
  • Patients with severe gum disease or osteonecrosis (dead bone) due to gum disease
  • People who have heart disease or high blood pressure

Talk to Dr. Kania about your overall health and ask whether you have any health conditions that would prevent you from getting implants. (more…)

What You Need to Know About Flossing

Woman flossingWhat is Gum Disease?

Periodontal disease increases your risk of serious health conditions like heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s, and obesity. As the second most common disease in the world, periodontitis is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Fortunately, it’s preventable. The most important weapon in the war on gum disease isn’t expensive or high-tech; it’s just a little thread that ties everything together. Flossing is, hands down, the best way to prevent periodontitis. Yet most people don’t floss daily, or even at all.

What Happens When I Don’t Floss?

When you don’t floss, bacteria and food particles stay trapped between your teeth. Your gums become irritated and swollen, and are no longer flush with your teeth. This creates a space for bacteria to lodge between teeth and gums and start breeding out of reach. As time goes on, both hard and soft tissue wears away by these microbes and their waste products. Eventually, bone and gum loss leaves teeth barely attached to your jaw, and prone to falling out. (more…)

The Gender Gap: Who Has Better Oral Health, Men or Women?

Man and woman arm-wrestlingIn almost every measure of oral health, women win the battle of the sexes. Compared to men, women are:

  • Almost twice as likely to have had a dental checkup in the last year
  • Almost twice as likely to notice a missing tooth
  • 17% more likely to be embarrassed by having a missing tooth themselves
  • 26% more likely to floss on a daily basis
  • 11% more aware that visiting a periodontist can contribute to good overall health

Additionally, women brush their teeth more, have better gum health, and a more positive attitude overall towards dentistry and oral health. So what’s a guy to do to catch up?

Schedule a dental checkup every six months: Dental checkups can include everything from a cleaning to screening for oral cancer—men have twice the oral cancer rate of women. This may be in part due to their lower incidence of dental checkups. Early detection is essential to successful cancer treatment, and it only adds about five minutes to your checkup.

Brush and floss on a regular basis: You should brush two times a day, and floss every night before going to bed. Rinse well with water after coffee, tea, soda, and anything else that’s sugary or acidic. Use mouthwash after you floss, and don’t eat or drink anything after that.

Seek prompt treatment for missing teeth: When you lose a tooth, you start to lose jawbone mass in the empty socket. Prompt treatment saves your jaw and, if your tooth was knocked out in an accident, might even save your tooth!

See a periodontist: Untreated gum disease leads to lost teeth and lost bone. Early treatment is more predictable and cost effective than waiting until the disease advances. If your gums are red, tender, or swollen, or if they bleed during brushing or flossing, you’ve got gum disease. Ordinary brushing and flossing cannot reach infection or plaque below the gum line—it must be professionally treated.

Dr. Ann Kania is a periodontist operating in the San Diego area. Using the latest in dental technology, Dr. Kania specializes in gum disease, dental implants, and bone grafts. She also offers routine dental care such as checkups, cleanings, and oral cancer screenings. If you haven’t seen a dentist in the last six months, you’re due for a checkup. Call our office today at (760) 642-0711 to schedule your appointment.

Brush Up on Modern Toothbrushes

Is a manual toothbrush as good as an electric toothbrush?

Good, old-fashioned brushing, without batteries, can be as effective as using an electric toothbrush if you use proper technique and brush long enough. Most people, however, don’t brush effectively or for the full two minutes that dentists recommend. A power toothbrush provides thousands of brush strokes per minute, and people tend to brush longer with an power toothbrush than with a manual one.  Many people tend to press too hard with their manual brush and use big head sizes and firm bristles.  For these reasons manual brushing can be more traumatic to the oral tissues than power brushes.

What’s the difference between an electric and a sonic toothbrush?

Most electric toothbrushes produce 3,000 to 7,500 rotations per minute, while a sonic brush can scrub 30-40,000 times per minute. However, the cleanliness of your teeth depends on how thoroughly you brush, not how many strokes you use.  Some people have thin, fragile tissue that can actually be damaged by aggressive brushing technique.  Dr. Kania will evaluate your needs and recommend the best brush for you.  (more…)

Thanksgiving and Teeth: From the First Thanksgiving to Today

This holiday has been celebrated in America for over 300 years. The traditional story states that Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony did not have enough food to last the winter, and the local Wampanoag tribe gave them food and taught them how to live off the land. Most of the foods we have during this holiday were part of those early harvest celebrations. As with other aspects of life, however, dental care has changed quite a bit from the first Thanksgiving to this one.

Dental Care at the First Thanksgiving

When the Pilgrims arrived in America, the field of dentistry didn’t exist as we think of it today. Barbers, who were also surgeons, performed tooth extractions. Toothbrushes had bristles made from hog hairs and handles made from wood or bone. They used salt as an abrasive cleanser – toothpaste didn’t exist in its present form. Some Pilgrims adopted the oral care practices of the Native Americans, who used frayed twigs as toothbrushes. Several plentiful trees – like juniper, oak, fir, and walnut – have antimicrobial wood, so chewing their twigs killed oral bacteria. To remove tartar and plaque, the Native Americans made an abrasive paste from the curacua plant and rubbed this on their teeth and gums. They chewed herbs like sage and mint to kill odorous bacteria and give their breath a fresher smell.

Since their diets had very little sugar, the Native Americans had very few cavities. Eating raw, fibrous fruits and vegetables like carrots and apples kept jaw muscles strong. These foods also helped remove food particles stuck between teeth. Raw nuts contained heart-healthy fats that absorbed acid from other foods. When toothache struck, they used several herbs to ease the pain. Tarragon, calendula (a type of marigold), yarrow root, and willow bark all have analgesic properties. Salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin, was first extracted from willow bark.

Thanksgiving mealHow Have Things Changed?

Today, we have toothbrushes with nylon bristles and plastic handles. Fluoridated toothpaste helps prevent cavities, and those cavities that do occur can often be treated without the need for extractions. We should all eat more whole natural foods like those eaten hundreds of years ago.  Take some tips from the first Thanksgiving and offer some dental-friendly foods at your feast. Raw nuts, fibrous fruits and veggies, and cranberries – which may keep cavity-causing bacteria from sticking to teeth – are a welcome addition at any holiday table. Keep teeth and gums healthy by rinsing well with water after you’ve finished eating.

We are thankful for all of our patients and the privilege to care for them.  Please feel free to visit Dr. Kaniaperiodontist.  Call our San Diego office today at 760-642-0711 to schedule your appointment. We serve patients in Carlsbad, Encinitas, Rancho Santa Fe, Carmel Valley, and the greater San Diego area.


New Study Links Common Virus to Oral Cancer

A recent study by the University of Southern California has linked a widespread virus, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), to the most common types of salivary gland cancer. Researchers have discovered that CMV re-activates a molecular pathway that normally turns off after birth, triggering unrestricted growth of virus-shedding tumors. This virus may also be implicated in other types of cancer.

What Is Cytomegalovirus?

Researcher with microscopeThe name comes from the characteristic large cells produced by infection with the virus. CMV is in the herpes virus family; all herpes viruses can lay dormant in the body for many years without producing symptoms. These viruses avoid detection by the immune system by creating chemicals that suppress infected cells’ immune reaction.  Other human herpes viruses include Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex I and II (cold sores and genital herpes), and varicella zoster, which causes chicken pox in children and shingles in adults. Pregnant mothers infected with herpes viruses can pass the infection to the fetus, resulting in birth defects; cytomegalovirus is the most commonly transmitted. It is estimated that 50-80% of Americans are infected with CMV. Though it does not normally pose a threat to healthy adults, people with compromised immune systems – transplant patients, HIV-positive individuals, and newborn infants – are at risk for serious illness and death. A baby is at risk if a pregnant woman first contracts CMV during pregnancy.

The Cancer Connection

Cytomegalovirus shows a preference for the salivary glands, where it may eventually cause cancer. Most salivary gland tumors caused by CMV are painless and will go undetected until later stages of the disease. Along with human papillomavirus (HPV), cytomegalovirus is one of the 10 viruses known to cause cancer in humans. HPV is implicated in some oral cancers, especially those in young adults. Though oral cancer cases among older adults are declining, cases in adults under 40 are increasing, and most of these are due to HPV. Herpes viruses are among the most common sexually transmitted diseases.

Early detection is essential for patients with oral cancers. Patients undergoing treatment while cancer is in stage I have a 90% five-year survival rate. Since about two-thirds of oral cancers are not detected until stage II or III, the overall five-year survival rate for all patients is about 57% and has not significantly increased in decades. Dr. Ann Kania can screen for oral cancer in as little as five minutes during your visit. Schedule an appointment today by calling our Encinitas office at 760-642-0711. We serve patients in San Marcos, Carlsbad,  Rancho Santa Fe, Del Mar, Carmel Valley, San Marcos, and the greater San Diego area.